LINUX:In 1969 AT&T made a decision to withdraw Multics and go with GECOS (General Electric Comprehensive Operating Supervisor / System), with AT & T in Bells Lab when Multics was withdrawn some of the programmers named Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie decided to rewrite operating system in order to support low cost computer..To Know More



    MICROSOFT:Microsoft was established to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800. It rose to dominate the home computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s,followed by the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. To Know More



    CISCO:During the early 1980s, there was a married couple namely Len and Sandy Bosack who used to work in two different departments of computer located in Stanford University. This couple was facing problem in making their computers communicate with each other To Know More



Basic Commands in RHEL 6.0

Linux Basic Commands

1. ls –l    -->             Listing files & directories include sizes, dates, and other information those  are kept in particular working directory.
2. ls –la  -->     Listing hidden files & directories include sizes, dates, and other information those are kept in particular working directory.
3. ls       -->           Listing only files & directories  those are kept in particular working directory.
4. ls –li   -->          Listing inode number of each and every file.
5. ls –R  -->          Listing a file from its directory and subdirectory.
6. clear  -->          It will clear the screen.
7. ctrl+l -->           It will also clear the screen.
8. exit    -->          To end a current session as well current terminal logging .
9. touch -->          To create a one or more new empty or blank file.
10. cd    -->          To change the working/present directory.
11. cat    -->          To view the contents of a file and it is also used for create a new file and to append the file.
12. mkdir  -->       To make new directory .
13. rm       -->       To remove a file.
14. rmdir  -->        To remove empty a directory.
15. rm [-i/-r/-f]  -->  To remove a directory with its subdirectories as well as its files that is to remove a 
                           directory which already contains some files in it.
      -i                Stands for interactively
      -r               Stands for recursively
      -f               Stands for forcefully            
16. rm –rf    -->    To remove file forcefully.
17. ctrl+c    -->     To kill the application
18. ctrl+z    -->     It will close the running application and application will be running  in the      
                           background and it will utilize RAM space.
19. mv       -->      To move one file or directory from one place to another place, it is also used for
                           renaming a directory or file.
20. man     -->      To view the manual page of commands
21. cp       -->       To copy one or more file from one place to another place.
22. info     -->       To view the information about any command.
23. - -help  -->       To view the help documents of a command.
24. dir       -->       To view the subdirectories and files under the directory.
25. ps      -->         To view process running in the system.
26. su-    -->         To log in become a super user.
27. who  -->         To see the user name who have logged in on your machine along with their terminal
                           no., date and time.
28. whoami  -->    To see your current logged in user name.
29. who am i  -->   To see your current logged in  user name, terminal no., date and time.
30. pwd         -->              To view the present working directory.
31. su username  -->         To switch from one user to another users home directory.
32. su  –  username  -->    To switch from one user to another user users home directory directly.
33. useradd  -->    To create a new user  .
34. passwd  -->      To set password for newly created user or to change the password of existing users.
35. userdel  -->     To delete a user.
36. groupadd   --> To add new group.
37. groupdel   -->  To delete group.
38. chown    -->    To change the ownership of a file or directory.
39. chgrp   -->      To change the group ownership of a file or directory.
40. chmod   -->     To change the permission of a file or directory.
41. usermod  -->   To modify the user profile.
42. which     -->    To determine the full path of a command or alias.
43. df –hT  -->     To see mounted file systems, associated mount points and file system types.    
44. umount  -->    To unmounts a previously mounted file system.
45. date     -->      To view and modify the system date.
46. cal      -->        To view present, past and future year calendar.          
47. history  -->      To show previously running command.
48. head –no.  -->   To view first specific no.’s line from a file.
49. tail –no.  -->    To view last specific no’s line from a file.
50. history | less  -->         To view the commands page wise ( use spacebar to view page wise and up arrow key to line wise)   
51. ! no. from history  -->   To run the command from the history.
52. wc      -->        To view the no.’s lines, character and words in the file.
53. getfacl      -->  To displays the file name, owner, the group, and the Access Control List.
54. setfacl –m  --> To set Access Control List for a user on specific file or directory       .
55. nano       -->     To edit file or create a new file1
56. ctrl+d   -->        To save the contents of the file.
57. mount   -->     To temporary  mounting the device    


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