LINUX:In 1969 AT&T made a decision to withdraw Multics and go with GECOS (General Electric Comprehensive Operating Supervisor / System), with AT & T in Bells Lab when Multics was withdrawn some of the programmers named Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie decided to rewrite operating system in order to support low cost computer..To Know More



    MICROSOFT:Microsoft was established to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800. It rose to dominate the home computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s,followed by the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. To Know More



    CISCO:During the early 1980s, there was a married couple namely Len and Sandy Bosack who used to work in two different departments of computer located in Stanford University. This couple was facing problem in making their computers communicate with each other To Know More




What is Network ?

Network is a connected collection of device and end point  systems, such as computer’s and Server’s which can communicate with each other.

Common Physical Components of Network

1.      PC

2.      Inter connections

3.      Switches

4.      Routers

5.      WLAN


P C   :  The computer serve as a end point in the network that they send and received the Data.


Inter Connection  :  Inter connection  Consist of Components that provide a means for data to travel from one point to another point in the network. This category include component such as following


A.  NIC:    that Translate computer data into a format that can transmit over the network.

B.  Network Media:  Such as cable or Wireless Media that provide the means by which the signal are transmitted from one network device to another.


C. Connector:that provides the connection point for the media.


Switches:  Switches are the device that provides networks attachment to the end systems and intelligence switching of the data within the local network.



Routers:Routers interconnect networks and chose the best part between networks.



WLAN:  Wireless LAN device:  WLAN device connect network device computers and other end pint to the network without cable. The minimum requirement for the wireless access to the network is an end point with WLAN, NIC and an access point that connect through the wire network.



Resource Sharing function and benefit


1.      Data and Application

2.      Resources

3.      Network Storage

4.      Backup devices



Network User Application:-


1.      Email

2.      Web Browser

3.      Instant Messaging

4.      Collaboration

5.      Data base

6.      Mobile Phone data Application

7.      Peer to Peer

8.      Online gaming



Characteristic of Network


1.      Speed:  Speed is a major of hoe fast data is transmitted over the network a more term precious data rate.

2.      Cost: Cost indicates the general expanse of component, installation and maintenance of network.

3.      Security:  Security indicates how to protect the network is including information that is transmitted over the network.

4.      Availability:  is a major of Probability that the network will be available for use when it is required.

5.      Scalability:  Scalability indicates how well the network can accommodate more uses and data transmission requirement.

6.      Reliability:  Reliability indicates the dependability of the Components that make up the network, such as Routers, Switches and PC. Reliability is a often major as a probability of failure or means time between failure.

7.      Topology: In Network there are physical and logical topology.


A.     Physical Topology:  is the arrangement of the cable, network devices and end System.

B.      Logical Topology:  is the part that data signal takes through physical topology.



I.P Address

I.P:  Internet Protocol

Protocol:  Protocol is the set of rules which define communication over the network.


Two types of Protocol

1.      Vendor Specific --------IIPX/SPX, Apple talk(Novel)

2.      Open Standard -------- TCP/IP ---(ieee Invent)

Vendor Specific .

          Windows                                                          Linux
8bits = 1 octets =1bytes
1024 Bytes  ----1 KB
1024  KB      -----  1MB
1024 MB      -----  1GB
1024 GB       ------ 1TB
1024 TB      ------- 1 PB
AClass  ===   1---- 126    127  =  Loop Back Reserve
B Class  ===   128----191
C Class  ===   192----223
D Class  ===   224 ----239
E Class  ===   240 ----255 Reserved   I. P for Loop Back
 We are using only A, B, C Class
D Class:   Using Multi Casting
E Class :  Reserve for  Research  and Development
                          N   H   H   H
Class A   :
                        255.0. 0. 0
  N    N   H   H
Class B   :
                         255.255. 0. 0
  N    N    N   H
Class C   :          200. 10.50.50
                        255.255. 255. 0



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