LINUX:In 1969 AT&T made a decision to withdraw Multics and go with GECOS (General Electric Comprehensive Operating Supervisor / System), with AT & T in Bells Lab when Multics was withdrawn some of the programmers named Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie decided to rewrite operating system in order to support low cost computer..To Know More



    MICROSOFT:Microsoft was established to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800. It rose to dominate the home computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s,followed by the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. To Know More



    CISCO:During the early 1980s, there was a married couple namely Len and Sandy Bosack who used to work in two different departments of computer located in Stanford University. This couple was facing problem in making their computers communicate with each other To Know More





 OSI Model                                                                                      DOD Model

                                                                                                            (Department of Defence)

                                                                                                            TCP/IP Stack


TCP:  Transmission Control Protocol

UDP:  User Datagram Protocol -- - Eg:  Live Streaming Match

Characteristic of UDP

1.       UDP Operates at transport layer of OSI model and TCP / IP Stack

2.       UDP provides application with access to network layer without the overhead of reliability of mechanism

3.      UDP is the connection less protocol

4.      Provide limited error checking

5.      Provide best effort delivery

6.      UDP heads no data recovery features

Characteristic of TCP

1.      TCP operates at transport layer of OSI Model and TCP/IP Stack (DOD Model)

2.      Access to the network layer for application

3.      Connection oriented protocol

4.      Full duplex mode operations

5.      Error Checking

6.      Frequency of data packets

7.      Reliable delivery acknowledge of receipt

8.      Data recovery features

9.      Flow control

(Three Way Hand Shake)

TCP Acknowledge and Flow Control

Source Port : --


1.      Number of calling port(16 bits)

2.      Destination port:-

Description: Number of called port (16 bits)

3.      Length

Description:- Length of UDP header and UDP data ( 16 bits)

4.      Check sum

Description:- Calculated check sum of the header and data fields (16 bits)

5.      Data:

Description:- Upper layer protocol data

 TCP Header

1.       Source Port : -  Number of calling port 16 bits                                                                             

2.       Destination Port : - Number of called port (16 bits)

3.       Sequence Number :  Sequence Number of the data octet in this segment which use to ensure connect sequencing of the arriving data (32 bits)

4.       Acknowledgement number : The Next TCP Octet that is accepted by the receiver (32 bits)

5.       Header Length : Number of 32 bits words  in the header (4 bits)

6.       Reserved : set to zero (3 hits)

7.       Flag : Using in Session management and in treatment of segment (9 bits) a Single bit that has specific meaning is often is refer to as a flag

8.       Window Size : The Number octet that the header and fields that are used for error checking(16 bits)

9.       Check sum: calculated check sum of the header and fields that are used for error checking(16 bits)

10.   Urgent Pointer : Indicated the end of urgent data ( 16 bits)

11.   Options : the variable length field which contents optional headerthat you may want to use

12.   Data :  Upper layer Protocol Data

Well Known Ports:

0       - 1023

     Registered Ports:

                                                          1024 - 49151

    Dynamically Ports:

                                                          49152 – 65535

A.      Well Known Port:    are assigned by IANA (Internet Assign Number Authority) and Number 1024 and below. This Number are assigned to applications that are fundamental to the internet by defying this well known ports for server application, Client Application can be programmed to request the connection to that specific port its associated service.

B.      Registered Port:  are list by IANA and are number from 1024 to 49151. This port are used for proprietary application (Zimbra, Lotus mail) When not used server resources, this port may also be dynamically selected by client as it sources port.

C.      Dynamically Assign Port: are assign numbers between 49152  - 65535 this port are assign dynamically for the duration of the specific session.


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